Athens, for example, granted epigamia to Euboea as late as the 5th century, a time when Athenian citizenship was fiercely protected. There are still earlier instances: usually one hears of epigamia when for one reason or another it was being suspended or denied. Thus, there was an early arrangement between the islands of Andros and Paros , which, Plutarch says, ended when relations went sour. More interesting is the statement, again by Plutarch, that there was no intermarriage between members of two of the villages, or demes, of Attica , Pallene and Hagnous.
Far from being evidence that these places were somehow originally separate states, the prohibition was more like a ban on endogamy : in other words, the two communities were regarded—like members of a family—as being too close to be allowed to intermarry. Thus, both marriage itself and prohibition of marriage were ways of defining the relations between communities, including communities within a single large state like Attica, and of keeping those relations friendly.
Nonetheless, there were surely agreements to limit warfare over strips of boundary land before that date. Archaeology may offer unexpected help in this matter: it is possible and plausible that some frontier zones were by tacit or explicit agreement left fallow. One such zone seems to have been the remote Skourta plain, which separates part of northern Attica from Boeotia; preliminary surface survey i.
An important landmark in interstate military relations of the kind considered here was the Lelantine War. Fought in perhaps the later 8th century between the two main communities of Euboea , Chalcis and Eretria , it took its name from the fertile Lelantine Plain, which separates the cities and includes the site of Lefkandi. Other faraway Greek states were somehow involved in the war; on this point Thucydides agrees with his great predecessor Herodotus. Thus, Samos supported Chalcis and Miletus , Eretria.
Given Euboean priority in overseas settlement, it is natural to suppose that the links implied by the traditions about the Lelantine War were the result of Euboean overseas energy, but that energy would hardly have turned casual contacts into actual alliances without a preliminary network of guest-friendships. Whether the oracle at Delphi took sides in the war, as a modern speculation has it, is less certain, though there is no doubt that, by some means wholly mysterious to the 21st century, Delphi often provided updated information about possible sites for settlement and even as over Cyrene gave the original stimulus to the emigration.
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Religious amphictyonies are one thing, but trade leagues are quite another; the evidence, such as it is, suggests that early trade was carried on by entrepreneurial aristocratic individuals, who no doubt exploited their guest-friendships and formed more such friendships during their travels. It is true, however, that such individuals tended to come from areas where arable land was restricted, and to this extent it is legitimate to speak in a generic way of those areas as having in a sense a more commercially minded population than others.
One example of such an area is the Lelantine Plain, an exceptionally good piece of land on a notably barren and mountainous, though large, island. Herodotus described one such trader from the later Archaic period, Sostratus of Aegina, a man of fabulous wealth.
Then in the early s a remarkable inscription was found in Etruria —a dedication to Apollo in the name of Sostratus of Aegina. This discovery revealed that the source of his wealth was trade with Etruria and other parts of Italy. Aegina is an island whose estimated Classical population of about 40, was supported by land capable of supporting only about 4, One may quarrel with the first figure as too large and the second figure as too pessimistic it makes insufficient allowance for the possibilities of highly intensive land use.
Even after adjustment, however, it is clear that Aegina needed to trade in order to live. Aegina was the only participating city of Greece proper, as opposed to places in the eastern Aegean. Ancient Greek civilization. This occurred in the early part of the seventh century BC.
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While the pieces which made up the panoply were all in use in Greece by the end of the eighth century, our first evidence for it being worn as a complete set of armour does not come until around BC, where it is depicted on a Corinthian vase painting. In the naval sphere, the archaic period saw the development of the trireme in Greece.
In the eighth century, Greek navies began to use ships with two banks of oars, and the three banked trireme seems to have become popular in the seventh century. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of ancient Greek history. Part of a series on the. Neolithic Greece. Greek Bronze Age. Pelasgian Helladic Cycladic Minoan Mycenaean. Ancient Greece. Medieval Greece. Byzantine Greece Frankish and Latin states. Early modern Greece. Modern Greece. History by topic. Art Constitution Economy Military Names.
Main article: Polis. See also: History of Athens. See also: History of Sparta. See also: Greek colonization. See also: Economy of ancient Greece. Main article: Agriculture in ancient Greece. Coinage began to be adopted in Greece in the mid-6th century BC, beginning with Aegina, which minted distinctive "turtle coins" above , before moving to other cities including Athens below , whose coins were exported throughout the Greek world.
Main article: Ancient Greek art. The kore known as the Dedication of Nikandre is probably the oldest to survive. See also: Ancient Greek sculpture. See also: Pottery of ancient Greece. The archaic period saw a shift in styles of pottery decoration from the repeating patterns of the geometric period, through the eastern-influenced orientalizing style to the more representational black-figure and red-figure techniques. Main article: Ancient Greek literature. Main article: History of the Greek alphabet. Main article: Ancient Greek religion. Main article: Ancient Greek philosophy.
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